Bipolar Disorder

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Bipolar Disorder is a type of mood disorder where there are episodic changes in the person’s mood, vitality, and ability to function. The changes range from the patient being extremely happy [maniac] on some days to extremely sad [depressed] on the others. The episodes that usually span days to weeks or sometimes more are called mood episodes.

There are days when the person feels absolutely fine, and there are no symptoms. The condition during this period is referred to as a neutral mood.

Pathophysiology of Bipolar Disorders

Research studies have proven that bipolar disorders run in families, and they have a very strong genetic background. Extensive laboratory analysis of the brain chemicals has revealed that in people with bipolar disorder, there is an imbalance between the dopamine and serotonin neurotransmitters. Dopamine and serotonin are the two most important brain chemicals that are responsible for stabilizing mood.

Types of Bipolar Disorders

  1. Type 1 Bipolar Disorder
  2. Type 2 Bipolar Disorder
  3. Cyclothymic Disorder

1. Type 1 Bipolar Disorder

Patients with type 1 bipolar disorder have frequent episodes of mania. Mania is a state which is characterized by a sudden and extreme increase in energy and confidence. The person is overly enthusiastic and happy. A depressive or hypomanic state follows the manic episode. Most often, the patients have periods of neutral mood where the energy levels and mental stability are optimal.

  • Symptoms of manic episodes include decreased need for sleep, faster speech, abnormally increased productivity, and extremely risky behavior. It must be noted that the symptoms are highly variable from person to person, and the family and friends of the patient must be consulted to characterize the behavior as abnormal.
  • The hypomanic episodes have symptoms similar to that manic episodes. However, the intensity of the symptoms and the durations are much shorter than that of the manic episodes. Hypomanic episodes do not cause any significant impairment in the individual’s normal functioning, and they are often considered normal.
  • Major depressive episodes are characterized by excessive sadness or hopelessness, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, lack of energy, concentration deficit, and restlessness.

2. Type 2 Bipolar Disorder

To categorize the patient as having type 2 Bipolar Disorder, they need to have at least one major depressive episode and at least one hypomanic episode. Type 2 Bipolar Disorder is not that intensive, and the patient usually functions normally in optimal conditions. However, a major depressive episode might force him to contact a psychiatrist.

It has been found that people with type 2 Bipolar Disorder usually have other mental disorders like anxiety disorders and substance abuse disorders, too. The severity of the other illnesses can directly affect the outcome of type 2 Bipolar Disorder.

3. Cyclothymic Disorders

Cyclothymic disorders form the class of Bipolar Disorders, which are the mildest in severity. Patients with Cyclothymic disorders undergo frequent ups and downs in mood. The severity of symptoms is not the same as that in type 1 and type 2 Bipolar Disorders.

To classify the mood disorder as Cyclothymic disorder, it needs to fill the following criteria:

  • Episodes of depression and hypomania that do not meet the criteria of bipolar Disorders type 1 and 2 for at least two years.
  • The symptoms should last for at least half of the time the two years.

We Can Help You!

Dr. Nibras at the Novus Beginning Psychiatry can help patients with Bipolar Disorders. Medications like mood stabilizers, psychotherapy, and talk therapy form the core of treatment for Bipolar Disorder at the Novus Beginning Psychiatry Clinic. If the patient fails to respond to these remedies, Electroconvulsive therapy might be used.

The problem with treating Bipolar disorder is the lack of compliance with the drugs and psychotherapy sessions. The humane and kind approach of Dr. Nibras helps the patient to live healthy and normal. So, if you, your family members, or your friends have Bipolar Disorder, feel free to contact us.

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